Event and Actors Representation in Selected Nigerian Daily Newspapers
The 2011 Nigerian presidential election newspaper reports were not just to inform the public about the outcomes of the election. The representations in the newspaper reports were ideological and, by implication, judgmental. The main actors (presidential aspirants), were also represented differently. In this paper, we interrogate some linguistic tools that were used in the ideological presentation of the election and the main social actors. In other words, the paper examines whether the main social actors are included or excluded, genericised or specified; and the level of voice projection accorded to them. The study is anchored on Critical Discourse Analysis framework and it operationalises some aspects of van Leeuwen (2008) socio-semantic model and Hallidayan transitivity system in examining social actor differential representations and process types in the newspaper reports. These linguistic tools (exclusion, inclusion, individualization, assimilation, collectivization, functionalisation, appraisement and voice projection) are very pertinent because they serve as the very foundation on which further context analysis of the discourse could be based. The study observes that social actors representations and voice projection in the data do not only polarize the reportage but also lace it with bias. It also shows that the incumbent president was given more positive representation and voice projection than other aspirants.
Abdullahi-Idiagbon, M. S, 2010. Language use in selected Nigerian Presidential election campaign speeches: A critical discourse analysis perspective. Journal of the Nigeria English Studies Association (JNESA), 13(2), 30-44.
Alo, Moses & Ogungbe, Ebenezer. O. 2012. Lexicalisation in news stories of some Nigerian National newspapers. LUMINA, 23(2), 1-19
Alo, Moses A., 2008. The representation of people in the news in the Nigerian print media. In Akin, Odebunmi, Rotimi, Taiwo & Akin, Adetunji, eds., Perspectives on media discourse. Germany: LINCOM EUROPA. Pp……00-00
Amer, Mohammed. 2017. Critical discourse analysis of war reporting in the international press: The case of the Gaza war of 2008–2009. Palgrave Communications 3(13), 1-11
Bell, Allan. 1991. The language of news media. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Broersma, Marcel. 2010, Journalism as performatives discourse: the importance of form and style in journalism. In Verica Rupar, ed., Journalism and sense-making: reading the newspaper. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press. pp.15-35.
Chiluwa, Innocent. E. 2011. Media representation of Nigeria’s Joint Military Task Force in the Niger Delta crisis. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(9), 197-208.
Coesemans, Roel. 2013. Tribal Politics, Tribal Press, Plural Contexts? Pragmatic analysis of news discourse on Kenyan crisis. IC – Revista Científica de Información y Comunicación, 179-200
Devaney, Haley. 2013. Perceptions of media bias: viewing the news through ideological cues. A Senior Honor Thesis, University of California, San Diego.
Eoin Devereux. 2009. Media studies: key issues and debates. London: Sage Publications.
Fairclough, Norman. 1989. Language and power. London: Longman.
Fairclough, Norman. 1992. Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Fairclough, Norman. and Wodak, Ruth. 1997. Critical discourse analysis. In Teun. A. van Dijk ed., Introduction to discourse analysis. London: Sage. Vol. 2, pp. 258–284.
Fowler, Roger. & Hodge, B. 1979. Critical linguistics. In Roger Fowler et al, eds., Language and Control. London: Routledge and Keegan Paul. pp. 185-213.
Fowler, Roger. 1991. Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press. London & New York: Routledge.
Gee, James P. 2001. An Introduction to Discourse Analysis: Theory and Method. Retrieved from Taylor & Francis e-Library.
Ghannam, Nada. 2011. Newspaper ideology: A critical discourse analysis of an event published in six Lebanese newspapers. University of Witwatersrand, South Africa. M. A Thesis.
Halliday, Michael. A. K. 1985. Introduction to functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold.
Huddleston, Rodney. Geoffrey K. Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kendall, Gavin. 2007. What is critical discourse analysis? Ruth Wodak in conversation with Gavin Kendall. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 8(2), Art. 29, Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2-07/07-2-29-e.htm
Leeuwen, Van. 2008. Discourse and Practice: New tools for Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, Incorporation.
Li, J. (2013). Translating Chinese political discourse: A functional-cognitive approach to English Translations of Chinese political speeches. University of Salford, Salford, UK. Ph.D. Thesis.
Makamani, Rewai. 2010. Brown is saying nonsensical things, much more idiotic than Blair: An analysis of hate language in political discourse used in Zimbabwe. In Daniel, Ochieng Orwenjo & John Obiero. Ogone eds., Language and politics in Africa: Contemporary issues and critical perspectives. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 2-25.
Min, Su. Jung, 1997. Constructing ideology: A critical linguistic analysis. Studies in the Linguistic Science. 27(2), 147-165.
O’ Halloran, Kieran. 2003. Critical discourse analysis and language cognition. Edinburg University Press.
Ojo and Adebayo, 2013. Many ‘sins’ of the mass media in Nigeria: A critical appraisal of the media in a decade of nascent democracy. Journal of media and communication studies,5(8), pp. 95-102.
Osunsanwo, Ayo. 2016. Role allocation in the media representation of participants in selected electoral discourses in Nigeria. Athens Journal of Mass Media and Communications, 2(3), 183-204.
Post, Michael David. 2009. Representations of meaning within textual personas: An analysis of 2008 US presidential campaign speeches. University of Birmingham. M.A Thesis.
Rashidi, Nasser and Rasti Alireza. 2012. Doing (in) justice to Iran's Nuke Activities? A critical discourse analysis of news reports of four western quality newspapers. American Journal of Linguistics, 1(1), 1-9
Sahragard, Rahman and Davatgarzadeh, G. 2010. The representation of social actors in interchange third edition series: A critical discourse analysis. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills (JTLS) 2(1), 67-89.
Susan Strauss, Parastou Feiz. 2014. Discourse Analysis: Putting our worlds into words. New York: Routledge.
van Dijk, Teun. A. 1993. Principles of critical discourse analysis. Discourse & Society, 4(2), 249-283.
van Dijk, Teun. A. 2006. Ideology and discourse analysis. Journal of Political Ideologies, 11(2), 115-140.
Wang, Junling. 2010. A critical discourse analysis of Barack Obama’s speeches. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(3), 254-261.
Wodak, Ruth. & Meyer, Michael. eds., 2001. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis: Introducing Qualitative Methods. London: Sage.
Zhuanglin, Hu. 1988. A course of linguistics. Peking: Peking University Press.
The Ghana Journal of Linguistics is published by the Linguistics Association of Ghana, P. O. Box LG61, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
© Linguistics Association of Ghana and individual authors, 2016.